(Some dates are approximate, especially those of the plays.)

1509-47Reign of Henry VIII.
1534Act of Supremacy, declaring Henry VIII head of the Church of England.
1547-53Reign of Edward VI.
1553-58Reign of Mary I; England returns to Catholicism.
1558-1603Reign of Elizabeth I.
1563 Adoption of the Thirty-Nine Articles, establishing Anglicanism as a middle path between Roman Catholicism and more fundamentalist Protestantism.
1564William Shakespeare baptized April 26; birthdate unknown, but traditionally celebrated on St George's Day, April 23.
1569Suppression of Northern Rebellion of Catholic earls.
1576James Burbage builds The Theatre.
1581Barnabe Riche, Riche his Farewell to Militarie Profession
1582Shakespeare’s marriage to Anne Hathaway, late November.
1583Birth of Susanna, May 26.
1583-84Plots against Elizabeth on behalf of Mary Queen of Scots.
1584John Lyly, Galatea.
1585Births of Shakespeare’s twins, Hamnet and Judith, February 2.
Earl of Leicester sent to aid the Dutch against the Spanish.
1587Execution of Mary Queen of Scots, February 8.
1588At some point Shakespeare probably moves to London; family remains in Stratford.
War with Spain; the Spanish Armada destroyed in July.
1588-94Shakespeare writes his early comedies and histories, and his early tragedy Titus Andronicus.
1590Philip Sidney, Arcadia; Spenser, Faerie Queene, Books 1-3.
1592Shakespeare attacked in print by Robert Greene in Greene’s Groatsworth of Wit.
1593Venus and Adonis.
1593-1603The Sonnets. Mostly composed late 1580s-early 1600s; published 1609
1594Shakespeare joins the Lord Chamberlain’s Men; The Rape of Lucrece.
1594Comedy of Errors performed at Grays Inn, December 28.
1595William Warner’s translation of Plutarch’s Menaechmi published.
1594-5A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Richard II, Romeo and Juliet.
1596-8The Merchant of Venice, Henry IV Parts 1 and 2.
1597Earl of Essex sent to Ireland to put down a rebellion led by the Earl of Tyrone.
George Chapman, An Humorous Day’s Mirth.
1598Ben Jonson, Every Man in His Humour.
1598-9Much Ado About Nothing, The Merry Wives of Windsor.
1599 Shakespeare’s company moves to the Globe; As You Like It, Henry V, Julius Caesar. Robert Armin replaces Will Kempe as the company clown.
1600-02Twelfth Night, Troilus and Cressida, Hamlet, All’s Well That Ends Well.
1601Shakespeare’s father dies
Essex’s abortive rebellion and subsequent execution
1602 First recorded performance of Twelfth Night, Middle Temple Hall, February 2.
1603Death of Elizabeth I; coronation of James I, March 24.
Shakespeare’s company renamed the King’s Men.
1603-4Measure for Measure, Othello.
1604James’s confrontation of the Puritans at the Hampton Court Conference.
Peace with Spain.
1605The Gunpowder Plot foiled, November 5.
1605-6King Lear.
1606-7Macbeth, Timon of Athens, Antony and Cleopatra, Pericles.
1608-10Beaumont and Fletcher, Philaster.
1609-11Cymbeline, The Winter’s Tale, The Tempest
1613-14(with Fletcher) Henry VIII, The Two Noble Kinsmen,and Cardenio; Globe burns down, soon rebuilt “in far fairer manner than before.” (Edmond Howes’s continuation of Stowe’s Annals (1631), quoted in Chambers, II, 419.)
Shakespeare in retirement,living in Stratford.
1616Death of Shakespeare, April 23.
1618Twelfth Nightperformed at Court, Easter Monday, April 6.
1623Twelfth Nightperformed at Court, Candlemas, February 2.