Internet Shakespeare Editions

5.3. Format of annotations

The format for annotations follows closely the format for collations (see 4.6.9). You will receive a template into which you can insert your annotations. You may work in your normal word processor, using it to create italic, bold, or superscript type. Section 5.3.2 lists the minimal tagging that will be needed in addition to that already included in the template.

5.3.1. The template

The template provides this ready-made format:

<NOTE>
   <TLN n="TLN"/>
   <LN>lineNumber</LN>
   <LEM>lemma</LEM>
   <LEVEL n="1">
levelOneNote
   </LEVEL>
   <LEVEL n="2">
levelTwoNote
   </LEVEL>
</NOTE>

a) Each annotation is surrounded by the tags <NOTE> . . . </NOTE>.

b) The TLN can be a single number, a number with a decimal addition, or a range of numbers. The decimal addition is needed for lines where the Folio has no equivalent (in plays where a quarto is the copy text, for example). Where an added stage direction should appear on a separate line, provide it with a decimal TLN, incrementally from the last one, and make sure that this number is also added to your text.

c) The line number is the line of the current scene (you do not need to include act and scene numbers). Again, for a range of numbers use the full number at the start and end of the range.

d) A lemma can be a single word, a phrase, or a longer section indicated by ellipsis (three periods separated by spaces). The lemma is not only the word or phrase for which there is commentary, but also the "anchor" which the reader will click on to see the annotation. For this reason, it is important that you design the lemma with four points in mind:

  1. A single-word lemma must be long enough to permit clear visibility of the underline that indicates an annotation, and to permit easy clicking. Thus, for example, a single "I" or "a" should be avoided; add a second word to the lemma, or extend it to a short phrase.
  1. Since the computer will find the first example of the lemma in a given TLN range, the lemma must be unambiguous. If a word is repeated in a line, and you are referring to the second instance, you should again include an additional word before or after. In this instance, the lemma <LEM>fair</LEM> would be inadequate, since it is the second instance of the word that is being annotated; the solution is to gloss the phrase.

The text:

  <TLN n="208"/>Speak, fair, but speak fair words, or
else be mute.

The note, in its unambiguous form:

<NOTE>
  <TLN n="208"/>
  <LEM>fair words,</LEM>
  <LEVEL n="1">Kind words.</LEVEL>
</NOTE>
  1. When you indicate a longer passage using ellipsis, the annotation will be linked from the first part of the passage, before the ellipsis. Thus this initial section of the lemma must be of sufficient length and must similarly be unambiguous.
  1. Finally, when your XML is converted to a Word document for Broadview, the last part of an elipsis will be used to anchor the conventional footnote, so it too must be unique within the TLN.

NOTE 1: it is very important that the lemma is exactly the same as it is recorded in your edition, including any capitalization and final punctuation. Otherwise the computer will not be able to match it, and there will be an error. The safest way to ensure accuracy is to copy and paste from your edition, making sure to update any collations should you later revise your modern text. If the lemma includes a TLN tag (as may happen especially in prose passages), include the tag as part of the lemma.

NOTE 2: since the lemma becomes the text the user clicks on to see the annotation, you must avoid overlapping lemmas. This may take some careful wording if you wish both to comment on an individual word, and a longer section it initiates. The best tactic will often to make the word itself the subject of a level one note, and to address the larger issue as a level two note in the same overall annotation.

5.3.2. Additional tagging needed within the annotations

Items to be tagged within the body of a note include longer quotations, which should be tagged <VERSEQUOTE></VERSEQUOTE> or <PROSEQUOTE></PROSEQUOTE> as appropriate. Use these tags only if the quotation is long enough to be set off from the surrounding passage. If you use Word as a word processor, you may use its italics (and superscripts).

Words in a foreign language should be tagged thus:

<FOREIGN lang="[language]"> </FOREIGN>

5.3.3. Examples of annotations

Please ensure that your annotation file includes an accurate note of the most recent revision. You will find the appropriate place in the metadata that are in the header of your document. Look for the item

<meta name="DC.Date.Modified" scheme="W3CDTF" content="2011-07-01" />

and change the final date, using the format YYYY-MM-DD.

It is a good idea to include the date of most recent revision in the file name so that you can be sure not to work on an older file.

Example: Cym_M_annotations 2006-08-11.rtf

The lemma should not include tagging. When a phrase (or more) is cited, only the first and last words, separated by three dots, need be given. The dots should be separated by a space from each other and from the surrounding words.

In these examples italics are represented by tags, converted from the italics of the original word processor document.

A note indicating the implied location of a scene:

<NOTE>
  <TLN n="1"/>
  <LN>0.1</LN>
  <LEM>[1.1]</LEM>
  <LEVEL n="1">Location: Oliver's orchard or garden.</LEVEL>
</NOTE>

A note with both level 1 and level 2 comments:

<NOTE>
  <TLN n="97"/>
  <LN>10</LN>
  <LEM>sterile curse.</LEM>
  <LEVEL n="1">Curse of sterility.</LEVEL>
  <LEVEL n="2">On "location of effect," see
Hope, 47-49. Plutarch reports the fertility hopes associated with the
Lupercalia (522), but Shakespeare invents Caesar's remark to Antony
about Calpurnia's barrenness. The comment indicates the failure of
Caesar's dynastic hope (he did not in fact leave any legitimate heirs
of his own begetting), and it misogynistically ignores the
possibility of his own infertility.</LEVEL>
</NOTE>

(Here the reference to Plutarch can be linked directly to the source passage in the supplementary materials accompanying the edition.)

A level 2 note covering a range of text:

<NOTE>
  <TLN n="27-30"/>
  <LN>18</LN>
  <LEM>Truly . . . them.</LEM>
  <LEVEL n="2">Bate suggests a bawdy pun on <I>awl</I>
and<I>penis,</I> referring to a similar pun in Dekker's
<I>Shoemaker's Holiday</I>, which was staged earlier in
1599 <I>cobbler's</I> 462).</LEVEL>
</NOTE>

A note that includes a verse quotation:

<NOTE>
  <TLN n="133-138"/>
  <LEM>Were I hard-favored . . . why dost abhor me?</LEM>
  <LEVEL n="2">Prince compares these lines to the
following:
<VERSEQUOTE>
He is deformed, crooked, old, and sere,
Ill-fac'd, worse bodied, shapeless every where;
Vicious, ungentle, foolish, blunt, unkind,
Stigmatical in making, worse in mind.
(<I>Err.</I> 4.2.19-22).
</VERSEQUOTE> </LEVEL>
</NOTE>

Where a note applies to more than one instance, do not include the additional TLNs in the TLN tag, but put it in the body of the note. In this example, the reference to the OED is placed in the level two note in order to leave the Broadview note in a simpler format:

<NOTE>
  <TLN n="2771"/>
  <LEM>Stay</LEM>
  <LEVEL n="1">Wait.</LEVEL>
  <LEVEL n="2"><I>OED</I> v. 9); see also TLN 2773.
</NOTE>

5.3.4. Paraphrase

Idiomatic paraphrases of sentences or phrases offered in the notes, as opposed to literal renderings, should be presented within quotation marks.

5.3.5. Incomplete sentences

Where a commentary note is not a complete sentence, Broadview/ISE style dictates that it should begin with a captial letter, and end with a period.

Level two notes should where possible be complete sentences.

5.3.6. Line references (format)

Line references (here and throughout) follow MLA style. Use both numbers for figures under 100: 20-26 (not 20-6), 11-17, 18-89. For figures above 100 use the last two numbers only, unless more are necessary: 103-04, 122-37, 189-226. Note that this rule does not apply to line references contained within tags (see above, 5.3.1.b).

5.3.7. References to stage directions

When cross-referencing stage directions in your commentary (or introduction), style the cross-reference as follows, for example: "see 3.5.1-2 SD above," where the stage direction in question begins the scene, and occupies two lines. The use of "SD," should avoid any confusion as to whether you might be referring to dialogue. Within a scene, you can say "see 5 SD above," meaning a stage direction within line 5, not following it; otherwise simply give the line number.

5.3.8. References to words in the text.

When citing words in the text, italicize them rather than putting them in quotations marks:

<NOTE>
  <TLN n="42"/>
  <LN>34</LN>
  <LEM>Leonatus</LEM>
  <LEVEL n="1">Literally, "lion-born."</LEVEL>
  <LEVEL n="2">As a proper name, <I>Leonatus</I>
also appeared in Sidney's <I>Arcadia</I> (<I>pace</I>
<I>OED</I>), and Leonnatus was a officer of Alexander the
Great.</LEVEL>
</NOTE> 

(Remember that you can enter these words as italic in your word processor; the tags <I> and </I> will be generated automatically from your file.)

5.3.10. Quotations from other works

Quotations in annotations should, except for good reason, follow the spelling and punctuation of the edition cited. Editors are urged to use reliable modernized editions wherever possible. The spelling of book titles, in the notes and in the bibliography, should also follow the spelling of the edition cited.

5.3.11. Closing punctuation

All commentary notes should end with a period.

5.3.12. Spelling

See above in the section on modernization of spelling for a list of spellings in US English, section 4.4.4.c.

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