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Author: Raphael Holinshed
Editor: Michael Best
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Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1587 (Selection)


180[Philip of France prepares to invade England]

Ye shall understand, the French king, being requested by Pandulph the pope's legate to take the war in hand against King John, was easily persuaded thereto of an inward hatred that he bore unto our king,The French king prepared to invade England. and thereupon with all diligence made his provision of men, ships, munition and victual in purpose to pass over into England; and now was his navy ready rigged at the mouth of Seine, and he in greatest forwardness to take his journey. When Pandulph upon good considerations thought first to go eftsoons, or at the leastwise to send into England before the French army should land there, and to assay once again if he might induce the king to show himself reformable unto the pope's pleasure, King John, having knowledge of the French king's purpose and ordinance, assembled his people and lodged with them along by the coast towards France that he might resist his enemies and keep them off from landing.

181Here writers declare that he had got together such an army of men out of all the parts of his realm,Anno Reg. 15. The great army which King John assembled together. both of lords, knights, gentlemen, yeomen, and other of the commons, that notwithstanding all the provision of victuals that might possibly be recovered, there could not be found sufficient store to sustain the huge multitude of them that were gathered along the coast, namely at Dover, Feversham, Gippswick, and other places. Whereupon the captains discharged and sent home a great number of the commons, retaining only the men of arms, yeomen, and freeholders, with the crossbows and archers. There came likewise to the king's aid at the same time the Bishop of Norwich out of Ireland,The Bishop of Norwich. bringing with him five hundred men of arms and a great sort of other horsemen.

182To conclude, there was esteemed of able men assembled together in the army on Barham Downs, what of chosen men of arms and valiant yeomen and other armed men, the number of sixty thousand; so that if they had been all of one mind, and well bent towards the service of their king and defense of their country, there had not been a prince in christendom but that they might have been able to have defended the realm of England against him. He had also provided a navy of ships far stronger than the French king's, ready to fight with them by sea if the case had so required.

183[Pandulph, the pope's legate, speaks against King John]

But as he lay thus ready, near to the coast to withstand and beat back his enemies,Two knights of the temple. there arrived at Dover two templars, who, coming before the king, declared unto him that they were sent from Pandulph, the pope's legate, who for his profit coveted to talk with him, for he had (as they affirmed) means to propose whereby he might be reconciled both to god and his church, although he were adjudged in the court of Rome to have forfeited all the right which he had to his kingdom.

184 The king, understanding the meaning of the messengers, sent them back again to bring over the legate,The legate Pandulph cometh over. who incontinently came over to Dover, of whose arrival when the king was advertised he went thither and received him with all due honor and reverence. Now, after they had talked together a little and courteously saluted each other (as the course of humanity required), the legate (as it is reported) uttered these words following.

185The saucy speech of proud Pandulph
the pope's lewd legate, to King John, in the
presumptuous pope's behalf.

I do not think that you are ignorant how Pope Innocent, to do that which to his duty appertaineth, hath both absolved your subjects of that oath which they made unto you at the beginning, and also taken from you the governance of England, according to your deserts, and finally given commandment unto certain princes of Christendom to expel you out of this kingdom and to place another in your room, so worthily to punish you for your disobedience and contempt of religion; and that Philip, King of France, with the first being ready to accomplish the pope's commandment, hath an army in a readiness, and with his navy newly decked, rigged and furnished in all points lieth at the mouth of the river of Seine looking for a prosperous wind that, as soon as it cometh about, he may sail therewith hither into England, trusting (as he saith) with the help of your own people (which neither name you, nor will take you for their king) to spoil you of your kingdom with small ado, and to conquer it at his pleasure, for he hath (as he sticketh not to protest openly to the world) a charter made by all the chiefest lords of England touching their fealty and obedience assured to him. Therefore, sith God for your just desert is wroth with you, and that you are as evil spoken of by all men as they that come against you be well reported, I would advise you that whilst there is a place for grace and favor, rather to obey the pope's just demands, to whose word other christian princes are ready to give ear, than by striving in vain to cast away yourself and all others that take your part or are bent to defend your quarrel or cause.

186[King John yields his crown to the pope and becomes his vassal]

These words being thus spoken by the legate, King John as then utterly despairing in his matters, when he saw himself constrained to obey, was in a great perplexity of mind, and as one full of thought, looked about him with a frowning countenance, weighing with himself what counsel were best for him to follow. At length, oppressed with the burden of the imminent danger and ruin, against his will, and very loath so to have done, he promised upon his oath to stand to the pope's order and decree. Wherefore shortly after (in like manner as Pope Innocent had commanded) he took the crown from his own headKing John delivereth his crown unto Pandulph. and delivered the same to Pandulph the legate, neither he, nor his heirs at any time thereafter to receive the same but at the pope's hands. Upon this, he promised to receive Stephen the Archbishop of Canterbury into his favor, with all other the bishops and banished men, making unto them sufficient amends for all injuries to them done, and so to pardon them, that they should not run into any danger for that they had rebelled against him.

187Then Pandulph, keeping the crown with him for the space of five days in token of possession thereof,Pandulph restoreth the crown again to the king. at length (as the pope's vicar) gave it him again. By means of this act (saith Polydor) the same went abroad that King John, willing to continue the memory hereof, made himself vassal to Pope Innocent, with condition that his successors should likewise from thenceforth acknowledge to have their right to the same kingdom from the pope. But those kings that succeeded King John have not observed any such laws of reconciliation, neither do the authentic chronicles of the realm make mention of any such surrender, so that such articles as were appointed to King John to observe pertained unto him that had offended, and not to his successors. Thus saith Polydor.

188Howbeit, Ranulph Higden in his book entitled Polychronicon saith indeed that King John did not only bind himself, but his heirs and successors, being kings of England,England became tributary to the pope. to be feudaries unto Pope Innocent and his successors popes of Rome; that is to say that they should hold their dominions of them in fee, yielding and paying yearly to the See of Rome the sum of seven hundred marks for England, and three hundred marks for Ireland. Furthermore, by report of the most authentic and approved writers, King John, to avoid all dangers, which (as he doubted) might ensue, despairing as it were in himself, or rather most specially for lack of loyal duty in his subjects, consented to all the persuasions of Pandulph, and so (not without his great heart grief) he was contented to take his oath, together with sixteen earls and barons, who, laying their hands upon the holy evangelists, swore with him upon peril of their souls that he should stand to the judgement of the church of Rome, and that if he repented him,and would refuse to stand to promise, they should then compel him to make satisfaction. Hereupon, they being all together at Dover, the king and Pandulph, with the earls and barons and a great multitude of other people, agreed and concluded upon a final peace in form as here ensueth.

189The charter of King John his submission
as it was conveyed to the pope
at Rome.

Johannes Dei gratia rex Angliae, omnibus Christi fidelibus hanc chartam inspecturis, salutem in Domino. universitati vestrae per hanc chartam sigillo nostro munitam, volumus esse notum, quod cum Deum et matrem nostram sanctam ecclesiam offenderimus in multis, et proinde divina misericordia plurimum indigeamus, nec quid digne offerre possimus pro satisfactione Deo et ecclesiae debita facienda, nisi nosmet ipsos humiliemus et regna nostra, volentes nos ipsos humiliare, pro illo qui se pro nobis humiliavit us ad mortem, gratia sancti spiritus inspirante, non vi interdicti nec timore coacti, sed nostra bona spontanea volunate, ac communi consilio baronum nostrorum conferimus, et libere concedimus Deo et sanctis apostolis eius Petro et Paulo, et sanctae Romanae ecclesiae matri nostrae, ac domino papae Innocentio, eius catholicis successoribus, totum regnum Angliae, et totum regnum Hyberniae, cum omni jure et pertinentiis suis, pro remissione omnium peccatorum nostrorum, et totius generis nostri, tam pro vivis quam pro defunctis, et amodo illa ab eo et ecclesiae Romana tanquam secundarius recipientes et tenentes, in praesentia prudentis viri Pandulphi domini papae subdiaconi et familiaris.

190Exinde praedicto domino papae Innocentio, eiusque catholicis successoribus, et ecclesiae Romanae, secundum subscriptam formam fecimus et juravimus, et homagium ligium in praesentia Pandulphi; si coram domino papaesse poterimus, eidem faciemus: successores nostros et haeredes de uxore nostra in perpetuum obligantes, ut simili modo summo pontifici, quipro tempore fuerit, et ecclesiae Romanae, sine contradictione debeant fidelitatem praestare, et homagium recognoscere.

191Ad indicium autem huius nostrae perpetua obligationis et concessionis, volumus et stabilimus, ut de propriis et specialibus redditibus nostris praedictorum regnorum, pro omni servitio et consuetudine, quae pro ipsis facere debemus, saluis per omnia denariis beati Petri, ecclesia Romana mille marcas Esterlingorum percipiat annuatim: in festo scilicet sancti Michaelis quingentas marcas, et in Pascha quingentas: septingentas scilicet pro regno Angliae, et trecentas pro regno Hyberniae, saluis nobis et haeredibus nostris, justitiis, libertatibus, et regalibus nostris. Quae omnia, sicut supra scripta sunt, rata esse volentes at que firma, obligamus nos et successores nostros contranon venire, et si nos vel aliquis successorum nostrorum contra haec attentare praesumpserit, quicun ille fuerit, nisi rite commonitus resipuerit, cadat a jure regni.

192Et haec charta obligationis et concessionis nostrae, semper firma permaneat. Teste me ipso, apud domum militum templi iuxta Doveram, coram H. Dublinensi archiepiscopo, Iohanne Norwicensi episcopo, Galfrido filio Petri, W. comite Sarisburiae, Willielmo comite Penbroc, R. comite Bononiae, W. comite Warennae, Saint comite Winton, W. comite Arundel, W. comite de Ferarijs, W. Briwere, Petro filio Hereberti, Warino filio Geroldi, 15 die Maii, anno regni nostri decimo quarto.

193This deed and instrument being written and engrossed, the king delivered it unto Pandulph, to take with him to Rome, there to make delivery thereof to Pope Innocent, and herewith did homage to the same pope, in form as followeth.

194The words of fealty made by King
John to the pope.

Ego Iohannes Dei gratia rex Angliae, et dominus Hyberniae, ab hac hora et in antea, fidelis ero Deo et beato Petro et ecclesiae Romanae, et domino meo papae domino Innocentio, eius successoribus catholice intrantibus. Non ero in facto, in dicto, consensu vel consilio, ut vitam perdant vel membra, vel mala captione capiantur. Eorum damnum si sciuero, impediam, et remannere faciam sipotero: alioquin eis quam citius potero intimabo, vel tali personae dicam, quam eis credam pro certo dicturam. Consilium quod mihi crediderint, per se vel per nuncios suos seu literas suas, secretum, tenebo, et ad eorum damnum nulli pandam me sciente. Patrimonium beati Petri, et specialiter regnum Angliae, et regnum Hyberniae adiutor ero ad: tenendum et defendendum, contra omnes homines pro posse meo. Sic me adjuvet Deus, et haec sancta euangelia, Amen. Act a autem sunt haec, ut praedictum est, in vigilia dominicae Ascensionis ad Doveram, Anno 1213.

195In English thus.

John, by the grace of God king of England and lord of Ireland, from this hour forward shall be faithful to God and to Saint Peter and to the church of Rome, and to my lord pope Innocentius and to his successors lawfully entering. I shall not be in word nor deed, in consent or counsel, that they should lose life or member or be apprehended in evil manner. Their loss, if I may know it, I shall impeach and stay so far as I shall be able, or else so shortly as I can I shall signify unto them or declare to such person the which I shall believe will declare the same unto them. The counsel which they shall commit to me by themselves, their messengers, or letters, I shall keep secret, and not utter to any man to their hurt to my knowledge. The patrimony of Saint Peter, and specially the kingdoms of England and Ireland, I shall endeavor my self to defend against all men to my power. So help me God, and these holy evangelists, Amen. These things were done on the eve of the Ascension of our Lord, in the year 1213.

196King Philip continues his campaign against John

Pandulph, having thus reconciled King John, thought not good to release the excommunication till the king had performed all things which he had promised, and so with all speed having received eight thousand marks sterling in part of restitution to be made to the archbishop and the other banished men, he sailed back into France and came to Rouen, where he declared to King Philip the effect of his travail and what he had done in England. But King Philip, having in this mean while consumed a great mass of money to the sum of sixty thousand pounds,Forty thousand marks of silver saith Matthew West. as he himself alleged, about the furniture of his journey which he intended to have made into England, upon hope to have had no small aid within the realm by reason of such bishops and other banished men as he had in France with him, was much offended for the reconciliation of King John, and determined not so to break off his enterprise lest it might be imputed to him for a great reproach to have been at such charges and great expenses in vain.The French King displeases for the reconciliation of King John with the pope. Therefore calling his council together, he declared unto them what he purposed to do.

197All his Nobles in like manner held with him, and allowed his purpose to be very good and requisite, except the Earl of Flanders named Ferdinando, who (in hope to recover again those towns which the French king held from him in Artois, as Aire, and Saint Omers) had joined secretly in league with King John and with the Earl of Boulogne, and therefore misliked the conclusion of their advice.The French king meaneth to proceed in his journey against the realm of England. Howbeit, King Philip, not being yet fully certified hereof, caused his navy to draw along the coast towards Flanders whither he himself hasted to go also by land, that coming thither he might from thence sail over into England and take land at a place to him assigned.

198Now it came to pass that at his coming to Graveling, he had perfect knowledge that the Earl of Flanders was joined in league with his enemies, wherefore he determined first to subdue the earl lest whilst he should be out of his realm some great trouble or sedition might rise within his own dominions. Therefore, leaving the enterprise which he meant to have made against England, he turned his power against the Earl of Flanders,The French King invadeth Flanders. and first commanded his navy to sail unto the port of Damme, whilst he himself, keeping on his journey still by land, took the town of Castile, and likewise Ypres. From thence he went to Bruges, and besieged the town, but he could not win it at the first, and therefore leaving a power of men to maintain the siege before it,Ghent besieged by the French king. he himself went to Ghent and thereto also laid his siege.

199In the mean time, the Earl of Flanders, perceiving that he was not able to resist so puissant an enemy as the French king, sent over in haste unto the king of England for aid. Whereupon King John, understanding that his adversary King Philip had turned all his force against the Earl of Flanders, and that thereby he was delivered out of the fear of the Frenchmen's coming into England, that same navy (which as before is recited) he had put in a readiness, containing the number of five hundred sail, he sent straight into Flanders with a strong army both of horsemen and footmen, under the guiding of William Duke of Holland, William Longspee, Earl of Salisbury, base brother to King John, and Reignold Earl of Boulogne.

200[The English destroy the French fleet in harbor]

These captains being now passed forth with their fleets into the main sea, espied anon many ships lying without the haven of Damme (for the number of ships of the French fleet was so great that the haven could not receive them all, so that many of them lay at anchor without the haven mouth and all alongst the coast). Wherefore they sent forth certain shallops to espy whether they were friends or enemies, and what their number and order was. It chanced that the same time the men of war which were appointed to keep the French fleet were gone forth, together with a great number of the mariners, to spoil and fetch booties abroad in the country.

201The English espials therefore, making semblance as though they had been some fishermen of those parts, came very near the French ships lying at anchor, and, perceiving them to be unfurnished of people necessary to defend them, came back to their company and declared what they had seen, certifying their captains that the victory was in their hands if they would make speed. The captains, glad of these news, commanded their men to make them ready to give battle, and causing their mariners to make sail directly towards the French fleet. At their first approach they won those tall ships that lay at anchor abroad before the havenThe English men assail the French ships. without any great resistance, the mariners only making request to have their lives saved. The other smaller vessels which (after the tide was gone) remained upon the sands (spoiling them first of their tackle and other things that would serve to use) they consumed with fire, the mariners escaping by flight.

202Thus the Englishmen, having dispatched this business with good success, did set upon those ships that lay in harbor within the haven. But here was hard hold for a while, because the narrowness of the place would not give any great advantage to the greater number. And those Frenchmen that were gone abroad into the country, perceiving that the enemies were come by the running away of the mariners, returned with all speed to their ships to aid their fellows, and so made valiant resistance for a time, till the Englishmen getting on land and ranging themselves on either side of the havenThe English men won the French ships. beat the Frenchmen so on the sides, and the ships grappling together on front, that they fought as it had been in a pitched field, till that finally the Frenchmen were not able to sustain the force of the Englishmen but were constrained (after long fight and great slaughter) to yield themselves prisoners.

203The English captains, glad of this victory gotten contrary to expectation, first gave thanks to God for the same, and then, manning three hundred of those French ships which they had taken fraught with corn, wine, oil, flesh, and other victuals, and also with armor, they sent them away into England, and afterwards they set fire upon the residue that lay on ground, which were above an hundred, because they were drawn up so far upon the sands that they could not easily get them out without their further inconvenience. After this, coming on land with their power, they marched forth into the country in good order of battle, to the end that if they should encounter with King Philip by the way coming to the rescue of his ships they might be ready to give them battle, which thing was not devised without good and great consideration.

204For King Philip, being certified of the danger wherein his ships stood by the sudden coming of his enemies, and therewithal being in good hope to come to their succor in time and ere the Englishmen had wrote their full feat, he raised his siege and made haste toward the coast; but as he was coming forward towards his navy, he was advertised that the enemies had won all his whole fleet and were now marching forth to meet him and to give him battle. Also it was told him how Ferdinando, the Earl of Flanders, being certified of the victory achieved by his friends, followed at his back. Wherefore, lest he should seem over-rashly to commit himself into manifest peril, he stayed a little from Bruges, and there encamped for that day as if he meant to abide the coming of his enemies.

205The next morrow he raised and returned towards France the very same way that he came,The French King returneth into France. no man pursuing him. For the Englishmen, contented with that victory which they had gotten, thought it not necessary to follow him with their further hazard. In the mean time, King John receiving news of this prosperous victory thus gotten by his people, did wonderfully rejoice for the same, conceiving an hope that all his business would now come forward and grow to good success.

206¶ This is the truth of this history, as some authors have set it forth. But James Meir in his discourse of Flanders declareth the matter somewhat otherwise, as thus: upon the Thursday before the Pentecost (saith he) the English fleet, setting upon the French navy which lay at anchor in the haven of Damme, drowned certain of the French vessels and took to the number of four which they conveyed away with them. Ferdinando the Earl of Flanders, having an army of men ready by land, was lodged the same time not far off from the coast, and therefore hearing what had chanced came the next day and joined with the Englishmen.

207There were yet remaining also divers other of the French ships (besides those which the Englishmen had sunk and taken) which were drawn up further into the landward. The Earl of Flanders therefore, and the English captains, judged that it should much hinder the French king's attempts if they might win those ships also with the town of Damme wherein the king had laid up a great part of his provision for the furniture of his wars. Hereupon the Englishmen were set on land, and, joining with the earl's power they marched straight towards Damme. This was upon Whitsun even, on the which day, as they were most busy in assaulting the town and ships which lay there in the haven, the French king being come away from Gaunt, suddenly set upon them, and though in the beginning he found sharp resistance, yet in the end, the Englishmen and Flemmings, overset with the great multitude of the Frenchmen,The Englishmen and Flemings vanquished by the French force. were put to flight and chased to their ships with the loss of two thousand men besides those that were taken prisoners, amongst the which were found to be 22 knights.

208The Earl of Flanders with the Earls of Boulogne and Salisbury, doubting to lose their ships and late gotten booty, sailed straight into one of the isles of Zealand called Walcheren. Then the French king constraining them of Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres, to deliver unto him pledges, caused the town of Damme and his ships lying there in the haven to be burned,The French king burneth his ships. doubting least they should come into the hands of his enemies. This done, he returned into France, leaving his son Lewis and the Earl of Saint Paul in garrison at Lisle and Douai, and, for great sums of money which by agreement he received of the towns of Ghent, Bruges, and Ypres, he restored unto them their pledges. Thus saith Meire, and Matthew Paris differeth not much from him touching the success which chanced to the Englishmen by land. ¶ Here will I stay a while in the further narration of this matter, and touch by the way a thing that happened to King John about this present time.

209[The prophecies of Peter of Pomfret]

A hermit named Peter of Pomfret, or Wakefield as some writers have. There was in this season a hermit whose name was Peter dwelling about York, a man in great reputation with the common people because that, either inspired with some spirit of prophesy as the people believed or else having some notable skill in art magic, he was accustomed to tell what should follow after. And forsomuch as oftentimes his sayings proved true, great credit was given to him as to a very prophet; which was no good consequence that therefore his predictions comprised undoubted events. Nay rather, sith in this pseudo-prophet or false foreteller of afterclaps, these necessary concurrents (namely

210Si sensus at effectus compresserit omnes,
Si spernens prorsis mortalia gaudia, sese
Abdicet a curis terrenis, assiduoque
Conetur studio ad superos extollere mentem;
Tunc etenim sapiens fiet, poteritque futura
Cernere, vel vigilans vel somno oppressus inerti,
Hoc pacto cecinere olim ventura Prophetae.)

211were wanting, and that he was contrarily qualified to that which this heptastich comprehendeth, necessarily it followeth that he was not as he was taken, but rather a deluder of the people and an instrument of Satan raised up for the enlargement of his kingdom -- as the sequel of this discourse importeth. This Peter, about the first of January last past, had told the king that at the feast of the Ascension it should come to pass that he should be cast out of his kingdom. And (whether to the intent that his words should be the better believed, or whether upon too much trust of his own cunning) he offered himself to suffer death for it if his prophesy proved not true. Hereupon, being committed to prison within the castle of Corf, when the day by him prefixed came without any other notable damage unto King John, he was by the king's commandment drawn from the said castleThe hermit and his son hanged. unto the town of Warham, and there hanged, together with his son.

212The people much blamed King John for this extreme dealing, because that the hermit was supposed to be a man of great virtue, and his son nothing guilty of the offence committed by his father (if any were) against the king. Moreover, some thought, that he had much wrong to die, because the matter fell out even as he had prophesied: for the day before the Ascension day King John had resigned the superiority of his kingdom (as they took the matter) unto the pope and had done to him homage, so that he was no absolute king indeed, as authors affirm. One cause, and that not the least which moved King John the sooner to agree with the pope, rose through the words of the said hermit that did put such a fear of some great mishap in his heart which should grow through the disloyalty of his people, that it made him yield the sooner. But to the matter again.

213[King John works to have the interdiction lifted]

King John (after his captains in Flanders had sped so well as before ye have heard) prepared to make a voyage into Guienne, not much regarding the matter in that the realm stood as yet interdicted. But when he understood by his lords that they would not go with him except the interdicting might first be released and he clearly absolved of the pope's curse, to the end that God's wrath and the pope's being fully pacified towards him he might with better speed move and maintain the wars, he was constrained to change his purpose, and so, coming to Winchester, dispatched forth a messenger with letters signed with the hands of four and twenty earls and barons to the Archbishop of CanterburyKing John writeth to the archbishop and the other bishops to return. and the bishops of London, Lincoln, and Hereford, as then sojourning in France, requiring them with all the other banished men to return into England, promising them by his letters patents not only a sure safe conduct for their coming over, but that he would also forget all past displeasures and frankly restore unto every man all that by his means had been wrongfully taken from them and as yet by him detained.

214The archbishop and the other bishops, receiving the king's letters,The bishops do return. with all speed made haste to come into England, and so arriving at Dover the sixteenth day of July, with other the banished men, they went to Winchester where the king yet remained,They came to Winchester the 20th of July. who, hearing that the bishops were come, went forth to receive them and at his first meeting with the Archbishop of Canterbury he kneeled down at his feetThe King kneeleth to the archbishop. and besought him of forgiveness, and that it would please him and the other bishops also to provide for the relief of the miserable state of the realm. Herewith the water standing in divers of their eyes on both sides, they entered into the city, the people greatly rejoicing to behold the head of the commonwealth agree at length with the members. This was in the year after the birth of our Saviour 1213.

215King John required of the archbishop (having as then the pope's power in his hands because he was his legate) to be absolved, promising upon his solemn received oathThe king prayeth to be absolved. that he would (afore all things) defend the church and the order of priesthood from receiving any wrongs. Also that he would restore the old laws made by the ancient kings of England, and namely those of Saint Edward which were almost extinguished and forgotten. And further, that he would make recompense to all men whom he had by any means in damaged. This done,He is absolved. he was absolved by the archbishop and shortly after he sent his orators to Rome to intreat with the bishop to take away the interdiction of the land. On the morrow after also the king sent his letters unto all the sheriffs of the counties within the realm, commanding them to summon four lawful men of every town belonging to the domains of the crown to make their appearance at Saint Albans upon the 4th day of August that they and other might make inquisition of the losses which every bishop had sustained,A quest of inquiry. what had been taken from them, and what ought to be restored to them as due for the same.

216The archbishop for that time taking his leave of the king, went to Canterbury, where he restored the monks to their abbeyThe archbishop taketh possession of his see. and then took possession of his see, being the two and fortieth archbishop that had ruled the same. In the mean time the king repaired to Portsmouth, there to take the sea to sail over into Poitou, committing the rule of the realm unto Geoffrey FitzPeter or FitzPeers, Lord Chief Justice, and to the Bishop of Winchester, commanding them to use the counsel and advice of the Archbishop of Canterbury in governing things touching the commonwealth. Herewith there came also to the king a great multitude of men of war, alleging that they had spent, in staying for him and his going over sea, all their money, so that he must now needs give them wagesThe lords refuse to follow the king into France. if he would have them to pass over with him into France. The which, when he refused to do, he was constrained to take the water with his own servants, arriving about a three days after at the Isle of Jersey; but perceiving that none of his lords followed him according to his commandment, as one disappointed of aid he returned back again into England there to take further order for this their misdemeanour.